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Description of Work Performed

A Mathematical Cyber Ontology

Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate (I2WD), Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC), U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM)

Under this Phase II SBIR, Silver Bullet Solutions, Inc., with teammates CUBRC, Inc. and Edutainiacs, Inc., is developing a mathematical ontology for cyber events, entities, behaviors, associations, and intentions – cyber Situation Awareness (SA) – and associated cyber Command and Control (C2) – Network Operations (NetOps), Defensive Cyber Operations (DCO), and Offensive Cyber Operations (OCO).  This Cyber Ontology (CybOnt) will improve interoperable data exchange between cyber operations nodes and enable data fusion for detection of cyber attacks as they are being planned and before they become incidents.  To demonstrate the use of the ontology in this manner, prototype cyber fusion algorithms are being developed.

Systems Engineering and Architecture

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic (SPAWARSYSCEN-LANT)

This contract supports enterprise requirements analysis and assessments, architecture, human systems integration, modeling and simulation services and future capability engineering in support of various DoN, DoD and Federal civilian agency systems.

Naval Enterprise Architecture Repository (NEAR)

Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (ASN RDA)

Silver Bullet is developing the translators to and from enterprise architecture tools such as IBM System Architect, IBM Rational Software Architect, No Magic's Magic Draw, and Sparx Enterprise Architect.  The translators go to and from the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF), formal ontology, the DoDAF Meta Model (DM2), and its Physical Exchange Specification (PES), all three of which Silver Bullet is the technical lead for the DoD CIO.  These translators will enable MBSE model reuse in conjunction with data exposure for future architecture and systems engineering analytics, execution, and simulation.  The data exposure will enable cross-architecture analysis for interoperability, for mission capability gap analysis, and portfolio management.



Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity – the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are inter-dependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio betSilver Bulleten input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as Silver Bulletll as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP  natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

Command and Control Systems Engineering Support

Navy Program Executive Office for Integrated Warfare Systems (PEO IWS) 6.0

Silver Bullet provided systems engineering support for Navy ship navigation systems including inertial, multi-source, alternative, and decision support.  Silver Bullet develops architecture descriptions and data models, acquisition documents, and specifications.  Silver Bullet conducts mathematical analyses, supports scientific research, and analyzes and synthesizes operational requirements.  Silver Bullet provides liaison between engineering and S&T communities.  Silver Bullet also supported Combat System and C4I systems integration and architecture, particularly for Ballistic Missile Defense.

OSD Architecture and Engineering Directorate Support

Department of Defense (DoD) Chief Information Officer (CIO)

Silver Bullet was a key member of the DoD’s Architecture team in direct support to the DoD CIO Architecture and Engineering Directorate for ten years.  Silver Bullet is DoD’s lead engineer for the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF).  Silver Bullet was the DoD ontology lead to an international defense work group to develop an ontology for coalition data exchange.  Silver Bullet led development of the DoDAF Meta Model (DM2) for ontologic patterns for capabilities, processes, state transition models, doctrine, organization, materiel, personnel, and facilities.  Silver Bullet was the directorate’s technical representative for many JIE architectures including Enterprise Operations Centers / JIE Management Network, JIE Wide Area Network, SATCOM Gateway, Unified Capabilities, Mission Partner Gateway, Mobility, Single Security Architecture, Identity and Access Management, and Tactical Processing Node.    Silver Bullet has been the U.S. data model and ontology lead to the international defence work group to develop a rigorous data model for coalition data exchange and integration and mathematical analysis of exchanged datasets.  IDEAS’ foundation is formal, higher-order, 4D, based on four dimensionalism. It is extensional, using physical existence as its criterion for identity. In practical terms, this means the ontology is Silver Bullet developed is well suited to managing change-over time and identifying elements with a degree of precision that is not possible using names alone. The methodology for defining the ontology is very precise about criteria for identity by grounding reasoning about whether two things are the same using something that can be accurately identified.  The ontology work Silver Bullet did on this project is relevant to the ontology-aided clustering.  Silver Bullet led an international group in experiments for heterogeneous tool data exchange using IDEAS.  Tools included IBM System Architect, Enterprise Elements, Jena, Protoge, 42 Objects, MOOD, and Rochade and involved Canadian, British, Swedish, and Australian defense agencies.

Architecture and Systems Engineering

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command

Architecture/systems engineering services for the development of the Navy/Department of Navy Enterprise Architecture (N/DoN EA).  Silver Bullet developed the data structure for the Naval Architecture Elements Reference Guide (NAERG) using DM2 and supported the analysis and restructuring of the existing architecture elements into the DM2.   Silver Bullet developed an OWL version of the DM2.

Enterprise and Strategic Engineering

Joint Improvised Explosive Device – Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Counter IED Operations – Intelligence Center (COIC)

Silver Bullet is the EA team lead as part of the Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) contractor for the COIC’s Enterprise Engineering Board.  Silver Bullet develops and maintains the JIEDDO-COIC Enterprise Architecture “As Is” and “To Be” baselines for capabilities, operations, systems, services, data, and standards including all COIC system interfaces, standards, and major technology insertion changes. Silver Bullet develops and maintains the EA Roadmap from the “As Is” to the “To Be” state.  This includes supporting mission analysis and identification of gaps to address in “To Be” EA end state, ensuring alignment with DOD and IC EA (e.g., JIE, DI2E and ICITE initiatives), supporting COIC portfolio management (PfM). Silver Bullet also conducts research into advanced analytic techniques (e.g., network analysis, search, predictive analysis) and technologies (e.g., electronics, forensics) and the information technology (e.g., software applications, databases and advanced database management).